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access_the_batocera_via_ssh [2020/06/08 15:01]
lbrpdx [Access Batocera Linux via ssh]
access_the_batocera_via_ssh [2021/03/18 10:26] (current)
fishou [Debugging] Added the batocera-screenshot command instead of the raspi2png
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 Windows users are advised to use Putty to connect through ssh: https://www.putty.org  \\ Windows users are advised to use Putty to connect through ssh: https://www.putty.org  \\
 Linux and MacOSX users can use command line ''ssh'' from a terminal. Linux and MacOSX users can use command line ''ssh'' from a terminal.
 +
 +===== Basic SSH commands =====
 +
 +Once you are connected to batocera, you can use the command-line to operate on the system.
 +
 +Know that upon connecting, you will be put into the HOME folder of Batocera, this folder is called ''~'' and is located at ''/userdata/system''.
 +
 +Some command-line tools have an ''%%--help%%'' option describing how to use the program, for exemple, typing ''%%cp --help%%'' will print how the command is used in the command-line interface.
 +
 +<code>BusyBox v1.31.1 (2020-11-28 14:11:54 CET) multi-call binary.
 +
 +Usage: cp [OPTIONS] SOURCE... DEST
 +
 +Copy SOURCE(s) to DEST
 +
 + -a Same as -dpR
 + -R,-r Recurse
 + -d,-P Preserve symlinks (default if -R)
 + -L Follow all symlinks
 + -H Follow symlinks on command line
 + -p Preserve file attributes if possible
 + -f Overwrite
 + -i Prompt before overwrite
 + -l,-s Create (sym)links
 + -T Treat DEST as a normal file
 + -u Copy only newer files</code>
 +
 +Most command-line tools have a similar syntax: ''%%CommandName -Option Parameter_of_the_option path/to/input/file path/to/output/file%%''
 +
 +Using the command line with paths of files can be confusing at first, there are two types of paths:
 +
 +  * **Absolute paths** : they will always be the same ones regardless of the current directory you are in, and they start with a ''/'' character, for exemple ''/userdata/saves''
 +  * **Relative paths** : they are relative to you current position, for exemple, if you are in the ''/userdata'' directory, and you use ''nano system/batocera.conf'', you will execute the command nano on the file ''batocera.conf'' located in the ''/userdata/system'' folder.
 +
 +If a path, or a filename, contains special characters or spaces, you will need to put either single quotes ''%%'%%'' or double quotes ''%%"%%'' around it.
 +
 +If a command needs to be manually closed, doing Ctrl+C will end it.
 +
 +Here is a subset of the commands you might want to know:
 +
 +==== Basic file usage ====
 +
 +A tool included into Batocera is Midnight commander, it is a powerful command-line file explorer, it should be enough for most users :
 +
 +  * ''mc'' : starts the command-line file explorer **M**idnight **C**ommander, this tool can be used to move, copy, delete, rename, and edit files, as well as create folders, make symbolic links, and change individual file permissions. This utility also supports a mouse input.
 +
 +You can also use the followings command to manipulate files : 
 +
 +  * ''pwd'' : tells you the current directory you are in [**P**rint **W**orking **D**irectory], for exemple, using ''cd /userdata'' then ''pwd'' will write ''/userdata''
 +  * ''cd'' : changes the current working directory [**C**hange **D**irectory], for exemple ''cd /userdata/roms'' puts you in the ''/userdata/roms'' folder
 +  * ''cp'' : copies a given file or folder to another path [**C**o**P**y], for exemple ''cp /userdata/system/batocera.conf /userdata/batocera.conf'' will create a copy of ''batocera.conf'' in the ''/userdata'' folder.
 +  * ''du -sh'' : gives you the size of the specified element [**D**isk **U**sage, **S**pecified, **H**uman-readeable], for exemple ''du -sh /userdata/roms/snes'' gives you the size of the snes roms folder (If you use batocera on a PC, and access it from a windows computer with the file manager, the size of some elements may not be accurate, especially for .wine games, so this command lets you see the actual size)
 +  * ''ls'' : lists the files and folders present in the current directory [**L**i**S**t].
 +  * ''mkdir'' : creates a directory [**M**a**K**e **DIR**ectory], for exemple ''mkdir content'' will create a directory called ''content'' in the current working directory.
 +  * ''mv'' : moves a given file to another path [**M**o**V**e], for exemple ''mv /userdata/roms/gb/game.zip /userdata/roms/gbc'' will move the file ''game.zip'' from gb to gbc; the ''mv'' command can also be used to rename files, for exemple, ''mv /userdata/roms/gb/game.zip /userdata/roms/gbc/gb_game.zip'' would rename the file when moving it.
 +  * ''nano'' : opens a command-line text editor for the specified file, for exemple ''nano /userdata/system/batocera.conf'' opens the file ''batocera.conf'' to edit it, for more infos see [[https://www.nano-editor.org/dist/v2.1/nano.html|this link (external)]].
 +  * ''rmdir'' : deletes a directory if it is empty [**R**e**M**ove **DIR**ectory], for exemple ''rmdir content'' will delete the directory content if it is empty.
 +  * ''rm'' : deletes a specified file [**R**e**M**ove], for exemple ''rm invaders-201226-124223.png'' will erase the file ''invaders-201226-124223.png'' in the current working directory.
 +  * ''rm -r'' : deletes a directory and all the files it contains [**R**e**M**ove, **R**ecursive], use with caution!
 +  * ''unzip'' : decompresses a given .zip file in the working directory, for exemple ''unzip file.zip'' will extract all the data in file.zip in the current working directory. You can ask to extract it elsewhere using the ''-d'' option [**D**irectory], for exemple, ''unzip file.zip -d uncompressed'' will extract all the data in file.zip inside a subdirectory called uncompressed.
 +==== Debugging ====
 +
 +The following commands can be used to debug Batocera, some of them are part of the ''batocera-es-swissknife'' command
 +
 +  * ''aplay -l'' : returns the list of playback hardware devices [**A**udio **PLAY**er, **L**ist] (can be used to debug audio issues on PC).
 +  * ''%%batocera-es-swissknife --arch%%'' : prints the current **ARCH**itecture running.
 +  * ''%%batocera-es-swissknife --emukill%%'' : **KILL**s any **EMU**lator running.
 +  * ''%%batocera-es-swissknife --restart%%'' : **RESTART**s EmulationStation.
 +  * ''%%batocera-es-swissknife --reboot%%'' : **REBOOT**s the entire system.
 +  * ''%%batocera-es-swissknife --shutdown%%'' : **SHUTDOWN**s the entire system.
 +  * ''emulationstation'' : starts emulationstation.
 +  * ''kill'' : kills a process with a given PID, for exemple if ''pidof retroarch'' returned 640, then doing ''kill 640'' will terminate the retroarch process.
 +  * ''pidof'' : gives a list of processes identifyiers (PID) for a running process name [**P**rocess **ID**entification **OF**], for exemple ''pidof retroarch'' returns a number when a retroarch-based emulator is running.
 +  * ''batocera-screenshot'' : Saves a **screenshot** of th current screen in the ''/useerdata/screenshots'' folder.
 +
 +==== Internet functionnalities ====
 +
 +  * ''batocera-upgrade'' : let's you update batocera using the command-line with the correct URL, see [[upgrade_manually|Manual upgrades/downgrades]] for more details
 +  * ''pacman -Ss'' : let's you search through the pacman packages using the command-line [**PAC**kage **MAN**ager, **S**ync, **S**earch], see [[pacman_package_manager|Batocera Package Manager (pacman)]] for more infos.
 +  * ''pacman -S'' : let's you install a package using it's name [**PAC**kage **MAN**ager, **S**ync], see [[pacman_package_manager|Batocera Package Manager (pacman)]] for more infos.
 +  * ''pacman -Rsd'' : let's you remove a package using it's name [**PAC**kage **MAN**ager, **R**emove, recur**S**ive, skip **D**ependancies checks], see [[pacman_package_manager|Batocera Package Manager (pacman)]] for more infos.
 +  * ''pacman -Scc'' :  clears the entire cache of the pacman manager [**PAC**kage **MAN**ager, **S**ync, clear **C**ache (extra **c** forces a complete clear)], see [[pacman_package_manager|Batocera Package Manager (pacman)]] for more infos.
 +  * ''pacman -Sy'' : Updates the pacman database [**PAC**kage **MAN**ager, **S**ync (extra **y** refreshes the database)], see [[pacman_package_manager|Batocera Package Manager (pacman)]] for more infos.
 +
 +===== Logging to a file =====
 +
 +Sometimes, you might prefer having the output of a command inside a separated text file instead of reading through the command line interface. to do that you can use the ''>'' and ''%%>>%%'' symbols followed by the path of a filename.
 +
 +for exemple, the command ''ls'' gives you the list of all files and folders in your current working directory, if you want to gather this inside a text file named ''list-files.txt'' at ''/userdata/system'', you simply need to use: 
 +  * ''ls > /userdata/system/list-files.txt'', the command will return nothing, and instead the files will be listed inside a new file called list-files.txt located in /userdata/system. Running the command again will replace the content of list-files.txt.
 +  * ''ls %%>>%% /userdata/system/list-files.txt'' however will add the output of the command to the existing file, without removing the previous infos.
 +
 +===== Custom aliases =====
 +
 +While not mandatory, it is good to know you can create aliases of commands, they let you launch a command with a simple keyword. One way to do this can be done by creating a text file in ''/userdata/system'', that file must be named ''.profile'' : it will contain aliases commands and  will execute them when Batocera is launched, so be careful of what you do.
 +
 +The alias command syntax is as follow:
 +
 +''alias customname=%%'du -sh /userdata/system/batocera.conf'%%''
 +
 +In this example, once batocera has been restarted, entering ''customname'' in the command line will do the same as entering ''du -sh /userdata/system/batocera.conf'' (in this example, it basically returns the size of the batocera.conf file in the command-line interface)
 +
 +a more useful, yet complicated example, would be to try and use ffmpeg to save a screenshot of Batocera in the screenshots folder for x86_64 devices, as devices other than raspberry pies don't have an equivalent of raspi2png, in this example I call the custom alias "pc2jpeg".
 +
 +''%%alias pc2jpeg='ffmpeg -hide_banner -loglevel error -f x11grab -i :0.0 -frames:v 1 /userdata/screenshots/$(date +%y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S).jpg'%%''
 +
 +This commands does the following :
 +  * ''ffmpeg'' : an command-line encoder included inside batocera.
 +  * ''-hide_banner'' : prevents ffmpeg from printing the copyright notice when running this command.
 +  * ''-loglevel error'' : will only alert in the command-line if there is an actual error preventing the command from working.
 +  * ''-f x11grab -i :0.0'' : uses ''x11grab'' to capture the screen 0 (this lets you use the screen as the source).
 +  * ''-frames:v 1'' : the number of video frames to capture.
 +  * ''/userdata/screenshots/$(date +%y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S).jpg'' : the full path to the file we want to save.
 +    * ''$(date +%y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S)'' : executes the ''%%date +%y-%m-%d_%H-%M-%S%%'' command and reurns its result in the command line (for exemple, it will return ''20-12-31_21-52-19'' the 31st december of 2020 at 21h52m19s), so the path before would be read as ''/userdata/screenshots/20-12-31_21-52-19.jpg''.
 +
 +So by using the ''pc2jpeg'' custom command, a .jpeg file will be created with a filename based off the date of the screenshot.
 +
 +
 +===== Advice =====
 +
 +Whenever you are using a command-line, try to understand what you are doing, even if it doesn't seem like it, some of them can be used in harmful ways. for exemple, putting simply ''> empty.txt'' without any command will create an empty file called empty.txt in the current working directory, however if you already had a useful file with this name, it'll be empty after this command.
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